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13 Beiträge in diesem Thema

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Aleister Crowley :love: (dabbler in sex, drugs, and magic, 1875-1947)

English writer and occult figure, popularly known as "the Great Beast" or by the media "The Wickedest Man in the World", because of his fascination to sex magic and degradation, drug-taking and hedonism. Crowley's famous motto was "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law." In 1934 Crowley took objection to remarks about him and brought a suit for defamation of character, which he lost. The presiding judge stated in his summation: "I have learned in this case that we can always learn something more if we live long enough. I have never heard of such dreadful, horrible, blasphemous and abominable stuff as that which has been produced by the man who describes himself to you as the greatest living poet." Crowley used blood and sex in rituals to obtain energy and achieve mystical insight.

"... Worship me with fire and blood; worship me with swords and with spears..." (from The Book of the Law by Aleister Crowley, 1938)

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Karl Marx (philosopher / socialist, 1818-1883)

Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818 in the Rhine province of Prussia, now in Germany. He was the oldest living boy of 9 children. Both of his parents were Jewish and were descendants from a long line of rabbis, but shortly before Karl was born, his father decided to escape anti-semitism by abandoning his Jewish faith. Karl was baptized in the Evangelical Established Church when he was 6. In October 1836, he enrolled at the University of Berlin to study law and philosophy. Marx's crucial experience at Berlin was his introduction to Hegel's philosophy, regnant there, and his adherence to the Young Hegelians. The Prussian government, fearful of the subversion latent in the Young Hegelians, soon undertook to drive them from the universities. By 1841 they had become leftist republicans. He received his degree in April 1841. Marx's philosophical efforts were toward a combination of Hegel's dialectic (the idea that all things are in a continual process of change resulting from the conflicts between their contradictory aspects) and Feuerbach's materialism, which placed material conditions above ideas. In 1842, Marx became editor of the Rheinische Zeitung. In 1843 he moved to Paris, the centre of socialist thought. There, Marx first became a revolutionary and a communist and began to associate with leftist societies of French and German workingmen. Under the pressure from the Prussian government, Marx was expelled from France and went to Brussels where he renounced his Prussian nationality. He later moved to London where he died in 1883.

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Edgar Allan Poe (writer, 1809-1849)

Edgar Allan Poe was a famous American poet, short story writer, journalist, and literary critic who lived from 1809-1849. He was born in Boston on January 19th, 1809 and was orphaned at an early age, after which he was sent to live with a foster family (The Allans) in Richmond. He was never officially adopted by the Allans and he was eventually disowned by the family. Poe won a short story contest in 1833, and two years later became a literary critic for the magazine (The Southern Literary Messenger). Shortly after, he then married his 13-year-old cousin, Virginia in 1836. He became nationally famous upon the publication of his poem The Raven in 1845.

His life was marred by infrequent but intense drinking bouts which gave him a bad reputation. However, he continued to produce excellent short stories (Murders in the Rue Morgue, The Gold Bug) which brought him acclaim in America, England, and especially in France. Many of Poe's stories take place in Paris. Unfortunately, after the death of Poe's wife (1847), he fell apart and died two years later on October 7, 1849. Besides giving him a place on the Sgt. Pepper cover, the Beatles mention Poe in the song "I am the Walrus" on the Magical Mystery Tour album: "Element'ry penguin singing Hari Krishna / Man, you should have seen them kickin' Edgar Allan Poe".

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William Burroughs :madmax: (writer, 1914-1997)

William Burroughs was born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1914. and became known as a leading figure in the Beat movement. His use of the cut-up technique, a collage technique whereby the writer literally cuts up and recombines text, was most widely employed in "The Ticket That Exploded" (1962). Many critics today regard Burroughs as the most powerful moralist since Jonathan Swift. Others decry him as a sensationalist and pornographer. His first novel, "Junkie: Confessions of an Unredeemed Drug Addict", was published under a pseudonym in 1953. "Naked Lunch" (1959) is regarded as Burroughs' masterpiece, the template for all his work. Written in a stream of consciousness style, it is a nightmare peopled by secret agents, mad doctors, gangsters, zombies, phallic monsters, vampires and extraterrestrials involved in sadomasochistic orgies, transformations, diabolical plots and interplanetary warfare. It's nihilistic humour, visionary intensity, strong social satire and brilliant style received critical approval in 1962, when American writer Norman Mailer claimed that Burroughs was "the only American novelist living today who may conceivably be possessed by genius". However, the novel's sexually explicit language and grotesque images resulted in a ban that was not lifted until 1966. Burroughs died on August 2, 1997.

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Stan Laurel (comic, 1890-1965)

Stan Laurel was born Arthur Stanley Jefferson on June 16, 1890 in Ulverston, Cumbria in England. He didn't get much schooling and this led to the joining of Fred Karno's Troupe where Arthur understudied the future star, Charlie Chaplin. In 1912 they went on a tour to America where Chaplin remained, but Stan went back to England. In 1916 he returned to the U.S. and did an impersonation of Charlie Chaplin in a successful act called "The Keystone Trio". In 1917 Stan made his first movie entitled Nuts in May. This led onto more short comedies with such greats as Broncho Billy Anderson, Larry Semon and Hal Roach. In 1925, Laurel met Hardy at the Hal Roach studios where Laurel was directing movies. Among those films were Yes, Yes, Nanette and Wandering Papas written and directed by Stan Laurel and starring Oliver Hardy. In 1926 they began appearing together but not yet as a team. One of the directors at the Hal Roach studio, known around the world as director of such great movies The Bell's of St. Mary's and Going My Way, Leo McCarey, joined these comic geniuses and formed an immediate partnership. Laurel and Hardy had appeared as funny as they could be in Putting Pants on Philip (1927) which led them to stardom. They made films for another 20 years. Laurel and Hardy are now known as one of history's best comedy teams. They retired from films in 1950 but went on a tour of England and appeared in many stage shows for years.

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Carl Gustav Jung (psychologist, 1875-1961)

Born in Kesswil, Switzerland, Carl Jung was trained as a psychiatrist after receiving his M.D. from Basel University. He then began research on psychoanalytic techniques and theories such as word association and began correspondence with Sigmund Freud in 1906. The two men met a year later and eventually presented seminars on psychoanalytic theory together in 1909.

Their relationship ended in 1913, when Jung broke away from Freud, resigned his professional positions and began the exploration of his own theories of psychology, religion, and what is known termed the collective unconscious. Although much of his later work is very detailed and intellectual, terms such as introvert and extrovert, parts of his threory, are commonly used expressions today.

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Stuart Sutcliffe (artist / former Beatle, 1940-1962)

Stuart Ferguson Victor Sutcliffe was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on June 23, 1940. His father, Charles, worked as a marine engineer and his mother, Millie, was a teacher. The Sutcliffe family moved to Huyton-with-Roby, Liverpool in 1944, and Stuart was educated at Park View Primary School, then Prescot Grammar School. He went to live with his friend Rod Murray at 9 Percy Street, while studying at Liverpool College of Art. Stuart was considered to be one of the most talented students at the college. Besides art, he was also interested in literature, poetry and philosophy. Here he met John Lennon, a fellow art student and they soon became best friends. John lived with Stu for a time in a flat at 3 Hillary Mansions, Gambier Terrace. When Stu sold a painting in 1959 for the impressive sum of £65, John convinced him to buy a bass guitar and join the band, regardless of the fact that he couldn't play. Stu is partially credited with coming up with the name Beatles, by jokingly suggesting "Beetles" as a play on Buddy Holly's Crickets. During the group's first trip to Hamburg in August 1960, Sutcliffe fell in love with German photographer Astrid Kirchnerr and decided to remain there to study art after their second trip. In June of 1962 he announced that he was going to marry Astrid after he'd completed his course at college. Over the following months, he suffered from mysterious and excruciating headaches that would sometimes cause him to black-out or experience temporary blindness. When the Beatles arrived for their third stint in Hamburg in April 1962, they found that their dear friend had died two days earlier, on April 10, 1962, of a brain hemorrhage. He was just 21 years old.

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Oscar Wilde :madmax: (writer, 1854-1900)

Oscar Wilde was born on October 16, 1854 in Dublin, Ireland. He was the son of Sir William, a famous ear and eye specialist, and Lady Jane Francesca Wilde, a poet and journalist. He attended Trinity College in Dublin and then studied at Magdalen College, Oxford. While a scholar, he toured Italy and Greece and published his first work, winning the Newdigate Prize for his poem "Ravenna". He graduated with a first-class B.A. in Literae Humaniores ("Greats") in 1878. After moving to London, he published a book of poetry, "Poems," in 1881. The next year, he embarked on a lecture tour of the U.S. and Canada. His first play, "Vera" premiered in NY, but closed after only a week. In 1884, he married Constance Mary Lloyd, a writer of children's books and they later had 2 sons. Wilde became a reviewer for the Pall Mall Gazette from 1885-1890, and edited the Woman's World magazine from 1887-1889. In 1890, his next drama, The Duchess of Padua, premiered anonymously and failed in NY. That same year, however, The Picture of Dorian Gray appeared in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine, and was published in book form in 1891. In 1891, Wilde also published Intentions (including the essay "The Decay of Lying" and "The Critic as Artist"), Lord Arthur Savile's Crime and Other Stories, and The Soul of Man Under Socialism. That same year, he met Lord Alfred Douglas. Douglas's father, the Marquess of Queensbury, strongly disapproved of his son's relationship with Wilde. In 1895, Queensbury charged Wilde with sodomy. He was charged under the 1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act and arrested. A jury eventually found Wilde guilty and sentenced him to 2 years at hard labor. While in prison, Wilde wrote De Profundis, which was not published until after his death. After his release, Wilde moved to France, where he was briefly reunited with Douglas. He died of cerebral meningitis on November 30, 1900.

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Terry Southern (writer, 1924-1995)

Terry Southern began writing satiric, outrageous fiction at the age of 12, when he rewrote Edgar Allan Poe stories "because they didn't go far enough." After serving in the Army as a Lieutenant in World War II, he took up residence in Geneva, where he wrote The Magic Christian (1959) and Candy (1960) for Maurice Girodias' Olympia Press. He published numerous short stories in England, France and America. After moving into an old farmhouse in Connecticut, Stanley Kubrick, upon the recommedation of Peter Sellers, invited him to employ his satirical touch to Dr. Strangelove (1964). A rewarding period in Hollywood followed, writing dialog for:The Loved One (1965), The Collector, Cincinatti Kid (1966), Casino Royale and Barbarella (1967). Terry helped launch the Independent film movement by co-authoring Easy Rider (1968), and co-producing The End Of The Road (1969), filmed entirely on-location in the Berkshires. He was hired in the early 80's to write for Saturday Night Live, and wrote The Telephone (1986) with singer-songwriter Harry Nilsson. Southern taught Screenwriting at both NYU and Columbia University from the late 80's until his death.

"The important thing in writing is the capacity to astonish. Not shock?shock is a worn-out word? but astonish." ? Terry Southern

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Aldous Huxley :love::love::love: (writer, 1894-1963)

Aldous Huxley was born in 1894 to a British family whose forebearers included outspoken Darwin advocate Thomas Henry Huxley, his grandfather, and poet Matthew Arnold, his great-uncle. Huxley's career as a writer began in the 1920s with a sequence of novels and short story collections which lampooned the pretensions of post-World War I society. Interested in a variety of literary forms, Huxley also published books of essays, travel observations, and poetry. In 1928, he published the novel Point Counter Point, an ambitious work with a vast cast of characters which explored multiple points of view and the multiple aspects of experience. In 1932, Huxley released the book which would become his most famous, "Brave New World". In this cautionary tale of the future, babies are bred in test tubes to become workers who, as adults, are kept docile through games, "sleep teaching," and the calming drug "soma." The book's success brought him celebrity and fortune, but the novels which followed suffered from Huxley's inclusion of his own instructive rhetoric. Still as prolific as ever, he continued to churn out additional stories, essays, plays, literary criticism and, following his 1937 move to Southern California, several Hollywood screenplays.

In the final ten years of his life, Huxley experimented with LSD, writing about his experiences with the hallucinogen in his book "The Doors of Perception". He died in 1963.

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John Winston Lennon :madmax::madmax::madmax: (October 9, 1940 - December 8, 1980),

rose to fame as a singer, songwriter, and guitarist for the legendary 1960s rock group, The Beatles. His creative career also included the roles of solo musician, political activist, artist and author. His first marriage was to his teenage sweetheart, Cynthia Powell, but he later left her for the Japanese artist Yoko Ono. He had always disliked his middle name and soon after his second marriage changed it to Ono. (His mother had named him after Winston Churchill.)

Early life

John Lennon's childhood years were struck with tragedy. He lived with his parents in Liverpool until his father, Fred Lennon, walked out on the family. His mother, Julia, then decided that she was unable to care for John as well as she should and so gave him to her sister, Mimi, who resided nearby at 251 Menlove Avenue. Although John lived apart from his mother he still kept in contact with her through regular visits, and during this time she was responsible for introducing her son to a lifelong interest in music by teaching him how to play the banjo. John's life was to change dramatically soon after his 16th birthday when his mother was killed after she was struck by a car which was being driven by a drunken off-duty police officer. (The young Lennon unfortunately witnessed this event and it had a profound influence on some of his later songs). His Aunt Mimi was able to get him accepted into the Liverpool College of Art by showing them some of his drawings, and it was there that he met his future wife, Cynthia Powell. However, John steadily grew to hate the conformity of art school and like many young men of his age became increasingly interested in Rock 'n' Roll music and American singers like Elvis Presley and Buddy Holly. Eventually, in the late 1950s, Lennon formed his own skiffle group called The Quarry Men, which later became The Silver Beetles (a tribute to Buddy Holly's Crickets) and soon afterwards was shortened to The Beatles.

Beatles career

John Lennon often spoke his mind. On March 4, 1966, in an interview for the London Evening Standard with Maureen Cleave, he made the following statement:

"Christianity will go. It will vanish and shrink. I needn't argue with that; I'm right and I will be proved right. We're more popular than Jesus now. I don't know which will go first, rock 'n' roll or Christianity. Jesus was all right, but his disciples were thick and ordinary. It's them twisting it that ruins it for me."

The statement was part of a two-page interview that went virtually unnoticed in Britain. In July of that year, Lennon's words were reprinted in the United States fan magazine Datebook, leading to a backlash by conservative religious groups mainly in the rural South and Midwest states. Radio stations banned the group's recordings, and their albums and other products were burned and destroyed. Spain and the Vatican denounced Lennon's words, and South Africa banned Beatles music from the radio. On August 11, 1966, Lennon held a press conference in Chicago in order to address the growing furor. He told reporters "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I'm sorry I opened my mouth. I'm not anti-God, anti-Christ, or anti-religion. I was not knocking it. I was not saying we are greater or better."

Solo career

Of the four former Beatles, Lennon had perhaps the most varied recording career, often reflecting the vicissitudes of his personality. While he was still a Beatle, Lennon and Ono recorded three albums of experimental and difficult electronic music, Two Virgins, Life With The Lions, and Wedding Album. His first 'solo' album of popular music was Live Peace In Toronto, recorded in 1969 (prior to the breakup of the Beatles) at the Rock 'n' Roll Festival in Toronto with a Plastic Ono Band including Eric Clapton and Klaus Voormann. He also recorded three singles in his initial solo phase, the anti-war anthem "Give Peace a Chance", "Cold Turkey" (about his struggles with heroin) and "Instant Karma".

Following the Beatles' split in 1970, he released the Plastic Ono Band album, a raw, honest record, heavily influenced by Arthur Janov's Primal therapy, which Lennon had undergone previously. This was followed by Imagine , his most successful solo album, which dealt with some of the same themes. The title track is a lovely song which has become an anthem for world harmony, but Lennon himself was later dismissive of it, claiming he had "sugar coated" his message. Certainly there is irony in Lennon, a prodigious shopper, urging his fans to imagine life with "no possessions."

Perhaps in reaction, his next album, Sometime In New York City, was loud, raucous, and explicitly political, with songs about prison riots, racial and sexual relations, the British role in the sectarian troubles in Northern Ireland, and his own problems in obtaining a United States Green Card. Two more albums of personal songs, Mind Games and Walls And Bridges, and one of cover versions of rock and roll songs of his youth, came before 1975 when, following a fourteen-month split from Ono during which he had an affair with Ono's former secretary May Pang, he retired to concentrate on his family life.

The retirement lasted until 1980, when he and Ono produced Double Fantasy, practically a concept album dealing with their relationship.

Lennon's son with Cynthia, Julian Lennon, enjoys a notable recording career of his own, as does his son with Yoko, Sean Lennon.

Assassination and memorial

In the morning of December 8, 1980, in New York City, a mentally deranged fan, Mark David Chapman, asked for an autograph from Lennon, which he received. Chapman remained in the vicinity of the Dakota Apartments for most of that day, probably sneaking into the carriage vestibule of the Dakota as a fireworks demonstration in central Park about 9pm distracted the doorman and most in the street that evening. Later that evening, at 10:50 p.m., Lennon and Ono were returning via limousine to their apartment building, "The Dakota" 72nd Street & Central Park West, NYC, from recording sessions for their next album. Chapman was hiding in the carriage vestibule as Lennon and Ono got out of the car. As Lennon walked past him, Chapman called out from the darkness "Mr. Lennon!", then moving forward assumed what witnesses later called a "combat stance," a crouched position with gun in both hands, and fired five shots just as Lennon was turning around. Four of the bullets struck Lennon in the back. He yelled "I'm shot, I'm shot," and ran a few steps towards the building before collapsing in the entranceway from the vestibule. A security guard called 911; Lennon remained conscious as paramedics arrived. Two police officers drove Lennon via their patrol car to Roosevelt Hospital. One of the officers, obviously trying to help Lennon maintain consciousness, asked the dying man if he knew who he was. Lennon's final words were reported to be "I'm John Lennon of the Beatles". After arriving at the hospital, he died of cardiac arrest as a result of losing most of his blood from his injuries. Reportedly, the song playing on the hospital tannoy at the moment of Lennon's death was a Beatles hit, "All My Loving".

Chapman made no attempt to flee. He paced up and down the sidewalk reading The Catcher in the Rye until police arrived. He surrendered immediately and told the police he had acted alone.

Meanwhile, at the hospital, Yoko Ono was the first to be told the news of Lennon's death, to which she reportably remarked, "oh, no, no, no...tell me it isn't true." Later, in a press conference held in the Roosevelt Hospital courtyard, Dr. Stephan Lynn confirmed the news that John Winston Ono Lennon, founder of The Beatles, was dead. "Extensive resuscitative efforts were made," he said, "but in spite of transfusions and many procedures, he could not be resuscitated."

Millions of Beatles fans had thought of John Lennon almost as a second father, an older brother, or a son. His murder touched off emotional outpourings of grief around the world - some fans reportedly committed suicide upon hearing the news and it ended the hopes of millions that The Beatles would someday reunite and stage one last world tour.

In a vicious kind of irony, the two Beatles most committed to pacifism were both brutally attacked; George Harrison was stabbed by an intruder in his home two decades later.

The Strawberry Fields Memorial was constructed in Central Park, across the street from the Dakota building in memory of Lennon. It has become something of a shrine to Lennon, all the Beatles, and the cultural memory of the 1960s.

In 1988, Warner Bros. produced a documentary film, Imagine: John Lennon (sanctioned in part by Yoko Ono). The movie was a biography of the former Beatle, featuring interviews, rarely seen musical material, and narration by Lennon himself (formed from interviews and tapes recorded by Lennon). It also introduced "Real Love", one of the last songs composed by Lennon, in an early raw demo (a later demo would form the basis for the version rehashed by The Beatles for The Beatles Anthology).

In 1990, specially selected radio stations aired a syndicated series called The Lost Lennon Tapes. Hosted by Lennon publicist Elliot Mintz, the show spotlighted raw sessions from throughout Lennon's career with and without The Beatles, including rare material never released to the public.

In March, 2002, his native city, Liverpool, honored his memory by renaming their airport "Liverpool John Lennon Airport", and adopting as its motto a line from his song "Imagine", "Above us only sky".

Lennon is included in the top 10 of the 2002 "100 Greatest Britons" poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public. The BBC History Magazine comments: "Generational influence is immense".

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John Winston Lennon :madmax::madmax::madmax: (October 9, 1940 - December 8, 1980),

rose to fame as a singer, songwriter, and guitarist for the legendary 1960s rock group, The Beatles. His creative career also included the roles of solo musician, political activist, artist and author. His first marriage was to his teenage sweetheart, Cynthia Powell, but he later left her for the Japanese artist Yoko Ono. He had always disliked his middle name and soon after his second marriage changed it to Ono. (His mother had named him after Winston Churchill.)

Early life

John Lennon's childhood years were struck with tragedy. He lived with his parents in Liverpool until his father, Fred Lennon, walked out on the family. His mother, Julia, then decided that she was unable to care for John as well as she should and so gave him to her sister, Mimi, who resided nearby at 251 Menlove Avenue. Although John lived apart from his mother he still kept in contact with her through regular visits, and during this time she was responsible for introducing her son to a lifelong interest in music by teaching him how to play the banjo. John's life was to change dramatically soon after his 16th birthday when his mother was killed after she was struck by a car which was being driven by a drunken off-duty police officer. (The young Lennon unfortunately witnessed this event and it had a profound influence on some of his later songs). His Aunt Mimi was able to get him accepted into the Liverpool College of Art by showing them some of his drawings, and it was there that he met his future wife, Cynthia Powell. However, John steadily grew to hate the conformity of art school and like many young men of his age became increasingly interested in Rock 'n' Roll music and American singers like Elvis Presley and Buddy Holly. Eventually, in the late 1950s, Lennon formed his own skiffle group called The Quarry Men, which later became The Silver Beetles (a tribute to Buddy Holly's Crickets) and soon afterwards was shortened to The Beatles.

Beatles career

John Lennon often spoke his mind. On March 4, 1966, in an interview for the London Evening Standard with Maureen Cleave, he made the following statement:

"Christianity will go. It will vanish and shrink. I needn't argue with that; I'm right and I will be proved right. We're more popular than Jesus now. I don't know which will go first, rock 'n' roll or Christianity. Jesus was all right, but his disciples were thick and ordinary. It's them twisting it that ruins it for me."

The statement was part of a two-page interview that went virtually unnoticed in Britain. In July of that year, Lennon's words were reprinted in the United States fan magazine Datebook, leading to a backlash by conservative religious groups mainly in the rural South and Midwest states. Radio stations banned the group's recordings, and their albums and other products were burned and destroyed. Spain and the Vatican denounced Lennon's words, and South Africa banned Beatles music from the radio. On August 11, 1966, Lennon held a press conference in Chicago in order to address the growing furor. He told reporters "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I'm sorry I opened my mouth. I'm not anti-God, anti-Christ, or anti-religion. I was not knocking it. I was not saying we are greater or better."

Solo career

Of the four former Beatles, Lennon had perhaps the most varied recording career, often reflecting the vicissitudes of his personality. While he was still a Beatle, Lennon and Ono recorded three albums of experimental and difficult electronic music, Two Virgins, Life With The Lions, and Wedding Album. His first 'solo' album of popular music was Live Peace In Toronto, recorded in 1969 (prior to the breakup of the Beatles) at the Rock 'n' Roll Festival in Toronto with a Plastic Ono Band including Eric Clapton and Klaus Voormann. He also recorded three singles in his initial solo phase, the anti-war anthem "Give Peace a Chance", "Cold Turkey" (about his struggles with heroin) and "Instant Karma".

Following the Beatles' split in 1970, he released the Plastic Ono Band album, a raw, honest record, heavily influenced by Arthur Janov's Primal therapy, which Lennon had undergone previously. This was followed by Imagine , his most successful solo album, which dealt with some of the same themes. The title track is a lovely song which has become an anthem for world harmony, but Lennon himself was later dismissive of it, claiming he had "sugar coated" his message. Certainly there is irony in Lennon, a prodigious shopper, urging his fans to imagine life with "no possessions."

Perhaps in reaction, his next album, Sometime In New York City, was loud, raucous, and explicitly political, with songs about prison riots, racial and sexual relations, the British role in the sectarian troubles in Northern Ireland, and his own problems in obtaining a United States Green Card. Two more albums of personal songs, Mind Games and Walls And Bridges, and one of cover versions of rock and roll songs of his youth, came before 1975 when, following a fourteen-month split from Ono during which he had an affair with Ono's former secretary May Pang, he retired to concentrate on his family life.

The retirement lasted until 1980, when he and Ono produced Double Fantasy, practically a concept album dealing with their relationship.

Lennon's son with Cynthia, Julian Lennon, enjoys a notable recording career of his own, as does his son with Yoko, Sean Lennon.

Assassination and memorial

In the morning of December 8, 1980, in New York City, a mentally deranged fan, Mark David Chapman, asked for an autograph from Lennon, which he received. Chapman remained in the vicinity of the Dakota Apartments for most of that day, probably sneaking into the carriage vestibule of the Dakota as a fireworks demonstration in central Park about 9pm distracted the doorman and most in the street that evening. Later that evening, at 10:50 p.m., Lennon and Ono were returning via limousine to their apartment building, "The Dakota" 72nd Street & Central Park West, NYC, from recording sessions for their next album. Chapman was hiding in the carriage vestibule as Lennon and Ono got out of the car. As Lennon walked past him, Chapman called out from the darkness "Mr. Lennon!", then moving forward assumed what witnesses later called a "combat stance," a crouched position with gun in both hands, and fired five shots just as Lennon was turning around. Four of the bullets struck Lennon in the back. He yelled "I'm shot, I'm shot," and ran a few steps towards the building before collapsing in the entranceway from the vestibule. A security guard called 911; Lennon remained conscious as paramedics arrived. Two police officers drove Lennon via their patrol car to Roosevelt Hospital. One of the officers, obviously trying to help Lennon maintain consciousness, asked the dying man if he knew who he was. Lennon's final words were reported to be "I'm John Lennon of the Beatles". After arriving at the hospital, he died of cardiac arrest as a result of losing most of his blood from his injuries. Reportedly, the song playing on the hospital tannoy at the moment of Lennon's death was a Beatles hit, "All My Loving".

Chapman made no attempt to flee. He paced up and down the sidewalk reading The Catcher in the Rye until police arrived. He surrendered immediately and told the police he had acted alone.

Meanwhile, at the hospital, Yoko Ono was the first to be told the news of Lennon's death, to which she reportably remarked, "oh, no, no, no...tell me it isn't true." Later, in a press conference held in the Roosevelt Hospital courtyard, Dr. Stephan Lynn confirmed the news that John Winston Ono Lennon, founder of The Beatles, was dead. "Extensive resuscitative efforts were made," he said, "but in spite of transfusions and many procedures, he could not be resuscitated."

Millions of Beatles fans had thought of John Lennon almost as a second father, an older brother, or a son. His murder touched off emotional outpourings of grief around the world - some fans reportedly committed suicide upon hearing the news and it ended the hopes of millions that The Beatles would someday reunite and stage one last world tour.

In a vicious kind of irony, the two Beatles most committed to pacifism were both brutally attacked; George Harrison was stabbed by an intruder in his home two decades later.

The Strawberry Fields Memorial was constructed in Central Park, across the street from the Dakota building in memory of Lennon. It has become something of a shrine to Lennon, all the Beatles, and the cultural memory of the 1960s.

In 1988, Warner Bros. produced a documentary film, Imagine: John Lennon (sanctioned in part by Yoko Ono). The movie was a biography of the former Beatle, featuring interviews, rarely seen musical material, and narration by Lennon himself (formed from interviews and tapes recorded by Lennon). It also introduced "Real Love", one of the last songs composed by Lennon, in an early raw demo (a later demo would form the basis for the version rehashed by The Beatles for The Beatles Anthology).

In 1990, specially selected radio stations aired a syndicated series called The Lost Lennon Tapes. Hosted by Lennon publicist Elliot Mintz, the show spotlighted raw sessions from throughout Lennon's career with and without The Beatles, including rare material never released to the public.

In March, 2002, his native city, Liverpool, honored his memory by renaming their airport "Liverpool John Lennon Airport", and adopting as its motto a line from his song "Imagine", "Above us only sky".

Lennon is included in the top 10 of the 2002 "100 Greatest Britons" poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public. The BBC History Magazine comments: "Generational influence is immense".

:heul::heul::heul: Warum musste er schon so früh sterben?

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